1. National Human Rights Commission:
Topic → Statutory and non-statutory bodies
• About:
• The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is a statutory institution in India that promotes
human rights. It was established on October 12, 1993 by the Protection of Human Rights Act
(PHRA) of 1993, which also established the State Human Rights Commission.
• Composition:
• Either a retired Chief Justice of India or a Supreme Court judge serves as chairperson.
• They are appointed by the President based on the suggestions of a six-member group that
• Opposition leaders in both Houses of Parliament Union Prime Minister and Minister of the
Interior (head) The Lok Sabha’s Speaker is Rajya Sabha’s Deputy Chairman
• Office Term and Termination:
• They serve for three years or until they reach the age of 70, whichever comes first, and the
President has the ability to remove them from office under specific situations.
• Source → The Hindu
. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
3. CASTE WISE CENSUS Prelims & Mains

2. Minimum Support Price:
Topic → Agriculture related topics
• What is MSP, exactly:
• The government purchases grains from farmers at the minimum support price (MSP). MSPs have
already been established for 23 crops grown during the Kharif and Rabi seasons.
• What is the method for calculating it:
• The MSP is the price at which the government buys crops from farmers, and it is estimated at
least 1.5 times the producers’ cost of production.
• According to the Union Budget for 2018-19, MSP would be retained at 1.5 times the cost of
• The MSP is determined twice a year, based on recommendations from the Commission for
Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), a governmental body that issues reports for the kharif and
rabi seasons.
• Which manufacturing costs are taken into account while establishing MSP:
• The CACP includes both ‘A2+FL’ and ‘C2’ expenses when recommending MSP.
• All monetary and in-kind expenses incurred by farmers on seeds, fertilisers, chemicals, hired
labour, fuel, and irrigation, among other things, are included in A2 expenditures.
• On top of A2+FL, C2 expenditures account for the rent and interest foregone on owned land and
fixed capital assets, respectively.
• The MSP’s disadvantages include:
• • The main concern with the MSP is a paucity of government procurement machinery for all
products except wheat and rice, which are actively procured under the PDS by the Food
Corporation of India.

• Farmers in states where the grain is completely procured by the government benefit the most,
while those in states where the grain is procured less frequently are frequently affected.
• Source → The Hindu
3. Caste Wise Census:
Topic → Population related issues
• Context:
• Although the Union government told the Supreme Court that caste-based data from the 2011
Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) was “unusable,” the Registrar-General and Census
Commissioner of India informed the Standing Committee on Rural Development in 2016 that
98.87 percent of the data on individual caste and religion was “free from errors.”
• What is the government’s justification for declaring the data “unusable”:
• The government estimated that there had been 4,147 castes in 1931, but SECC data shows that
there are now over 46 lakh castes. Even if certain castes divide into sub-castes, the total number
of sub-castes cannot be exponentially large. • The entire effort was polluted because the data
collectors used separate words for the same castes. Many responders, as per the authorities,
refused to disclose their castes.
• How have caste statistics been acquired so far:
• While the census enumerators collect data on SC/STs, they do not collect data on other castes.
The most popular method is self-declaration to the enumerator.
• Until date, several states’ backward classes commissions performed their own demographic
counts to ascertain the amount of backward castes.
• What type of caste information does the Census release:

• Every census in independent India between 1951 and 2011 provided data on Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes, but not on other castes. Until 1931, caste information was recorded in
every census.
• What is the purpose of SECC 2011:
• The 2011 Socio-Economic Caste Census was a humongous endeavour to collect data on diverse
communities’ socio-economic condition.
• It was divided into two sections: a survey of rural and urban households and their classification
based on predetermined variables, and a caste census.
• Only the details of people’s economic circumstances in rural and urban areas, however, were
made public. The caste statistics has yet to be released.
• What’s the difference between the Census and the SECC:
• Because the Census is controlled by the Census Act of 1948, all data are considered private,
whereas the SECC collects personal information that can be used by government departments to
grant or deny benefits to households.
• Caste census benefits:
• Knowing the exact population of each caste would help adapt the reservation policy so that
everyone is fairly represented.
• Issues relating to:
• It’s probable that some people will get the shivers, leading to requests for higher or distinct
• It has been suggested that just labelling someone as belonging to a particular caste helps to keep
the system in place.
Source → The Hindu
4. About the National Investigation Agency:
Prelims Specific Topic

• About the NIA:
• The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a federal investigative agency based in India.
• It is a National Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency with the authority to pursue terrorrelated offences across state lines without the need for special state authorization.
• The National Investigation Agency Act, which was passed in 2008, established the agency. The
regulating body is the Ministry of Hime Affairs.
• Jurisdiction:
• If a case has been filed for one of the offences mentioned in the NIA Act’s schedule, the State
Government may request that the NIA handle the investigation.
• The National Investigation Agency (NIA) can also be instructed by the Central Government to
take over the investigation of any scheduled offence anywhere in India.
• Composition:
• Officers from the Indian Police Service and the Indian Revenue Service make up the NIA.
• NIA Special Courts:
• Under Sections 11 and 22 of the NIA Act 2008, the Central Government of India has notified a
number of Special Courts for the trial of charges lodged at various NIA police stations.
• Any question of these courts’ jurisdiction is decided by the Central Government.
• The Central Government appoints a judge to preside over them on the recommendation of the
Chief Justice of the High Court with jurisdiction in that region.
• In light of the realities in that state, the Supreme Court of India has also been given the
jurisdiction to transfer cases from one special court to another special court inside or beyond the
state if it is in the best interests of justice.
• Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the NIA Special Courts have all the powers of a
court of sessions for the trial of any offence.
• On both facts and law, a Special Court judgement, sentence, or order that is not an interlocutory
order may be appealed to the High Court.
• State legislatures have also been given the power to appoint one or more special courts in their
• Source → The Hindu