Context- The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), a central government initiative to provide piped water to
every rural household by 2024, faces challenges and limitations.
About the mission
- A fully functional tap water connection is defined as a household getting at least 55 litres
of potable water per capita per day all through the year
Achievements of the mission
- Over two-thirds (66%) of rural householdsin India now have piped water connections, a
significant leap from the 2019 baseline of 17%.
- States Achieving 100% Tap Connectivity: Goa, Telangana, Haryana.
- Union Territories Achieving 100% Tap Connectivity: Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar
Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu.
- States with over 90% FHTC Coverage: Punjab, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar
- States with Least FHTC Coverage: Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh
Present challenges with the mission State Disparities
- Only a few states report high coverage rates. In contrast, populous states like Uttar
Pradesh and Rajasthan have lower coverage.
- Some households, despite having tap connections, use local groundwater due to
inadequate tap water quality.
Reporting and Certification
- Adoption numbers rely on self-reporting by villages and lack third-party
Shortcomings in Reality
- Despite official claims of 100% household tap connections (FHTC), many
households lack taps, and those with taps often receive limited water
Discrepancies in Reporting
- Discrepancies exist between official reports and ground reality, where eligible FHTC
households are not fully connected to running water supply.
Water Treatment Efforts
- Water treatment plants have been commissioned to address water scarcity, but the
challenge lies in commissioning pipes over difficult terrain.
Taps Get Stolen
- In some areas, taps provided by the mission have been stolen, and households lack
sufficient storage to maintain a continuous water supply.
- Quality Over Quantity: Prioritizing consistent, high-quality tap water adoption in rural
India is crucial. States with lower adoption rates and larger populations should receive
assistance to improve their numbers.
- Third-Party Assessment: Implement third-party assessments to verify the accuracy of
reported tap water connections, ensuring transparency and accountability.
- Focus on Lagging States: Prioritize states with lower adoption rates and larger
populations to accelerate progress toward universal tap water coverage.
- Public Awareness: Conduct awareness campaigns to educate rural communities on the
benefits of clean tap water and proper water usage.
- Make the Right to Water Legal: In India, the right to water is not enshrined as a
fundamental right in the Constitution.
Other steps are taken for water management in Urban Areas
- Atal Bhujal Yojana: For sustainable management of groundwater resources with
community participation in selected water-stressed areas.
- National Aquifer Management Program: For mapping of aquifers, characterization, and
development of aquifer management plans.
- National Water Policy (2012): Include provisions like rainwater harvesting, augmenting
the availability of water through direct use of rainfall, etc.
- Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT): To provide tap
connections to over 1 crore households in 500 cities.
On 28 July 2010, through Resolution 64/292, the United Nations General Assembly explicitly
recognized the human right to water and sanitation and acknowledged that clean drinking
water and sanitation are essential to the realization of all human rights.