Philosophy

Home»Philosophy Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination

Paper-I
History and Problems of Philosophy

  1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
  2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
  3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
  4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
  5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
  1. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
  2. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  3. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
  4. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
  5. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.
  6. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
  7. Ca-rva-ka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
  8. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhan(ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
  9. Schools of Buddhism: Prati-tyasamutpa-da; Ksanikavada, Naira-tmyava-da
  10. Nya-ya- Vais’esika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Prama-na; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
  11. Sa-mkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
  12. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
  13. Mima-msa-: Theory of Knowledge
  14. Schools of Veda-nta: Brahman; I-s’vara; A-tman; Jiva; Jagat; Ma-ya-; Avidya-; Adhya-sa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
  15. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper-II
Socio-Political Philosophy

  1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
  2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
  3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
  4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
  5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
  6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
  7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  8. Development and Social Progress.
  9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowerment.
  10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion:

  1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  3. The Problem of Evil.
  4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  5. Reason, Revelation, and Faith.
  6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  7. Religion without God.
  8. Religion and Morality.
  9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
  10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive

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